Female Controlled
Diaphragm Acceptability






Hormonal Contraception and the Risk of HIV Acquisition

Ancillary studies


Zimbabwe, Uganda,

National Institute of
  Child Health and Human
(at the NIH)
Administered by
Family Health
  International (FHI)

Principal Investigator
Nancy Padian, PhD

Hormonal contraception is widely used in the developing world, including Sub-Saharan Africa where HIV incidence among women is highest. Although of crucial public health importance, our current understanding of a possible association between hormonal contraceptive use and HIV acquisition is limited. Because of the critical nature of this issue to women of reproductive age worldwide, a methodologically sound study must be undertaken.

Specific Aims

  • To measure the effect of combined oral contraceptive (COC) and Depot-Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) use on the acquisition of HIV infection by comparing the rate of infection among women using hormonal contraception (HC) with the rate among those not using HC;

  • To determine if the rate of HIV infection in HC users compared with non-users is modified by the presence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs);

  • To measure whether the type of hormonal contraception (COC versus DMPA) has a differential impact on the rate of HIV acquisition among women.

Study Description

This is a multi-center, prospective cohort study. Over six thousand HIV-negative women attending family planning and maternal and child health clinics in Uganda, Thailand, and Zimbabwe (2,400 participants) will be enrolled into the study. COC users, DMPA users and women not using HC will be recruited in equal numbers and followed every 12 weeks for a minimum of 15 months and a maximum of 24 months or until seroconversion.



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